Garment: Health and Safety

07/13 Garment Health and Safety

Protection from Work Accident

What is Occupational Health and Safety (OHS)?

According to article 1 of Government Regulation No. 50 year 2012 regarding Application of Management System for Work Safety and Health, Occupational Health and Safety, (OHS) is all activities to guarantee and protect health and safety of the workers through prevention of work accidents and occupational diseases.

What is the Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) Management System?

The Occupational Safety and Health Management System includes organizational structure, planning, responsibility, implementation, procedures, processes and resources that are required for developing, implementing, achieving, reviewing and maintaining the safety and health policies in order to control the risks associated with activities working in order to establish a workplace that is safe, efficient and productive.

Are garment companies required to oblige the OSH Management System?

The obligation of implementation of an OHS Management System within a company is regulated in:

Labour Law Article 87: "Every company is required to implement occupational health and safety management system integrated within company's management system"

Article 5 of PP No. 50 of 2012 regarding OSH Management System says: "Every company is required to implement the OSH Management System in their company"

What are the benefits of an OHS Management System in garment companies?

1. As workers protection
The main purpose of the OHS Management System is to protect workers from all forms of occupational accidents and diseases

2. Demonstrate compliance with labour laws and regulations
Companies that comply with applicable laws or regulations generally look more orderly and this can improve the company's good image.

3. Create an effective management system
By implementing the OHS Management System, the management system will be well organized and effective, because an OHS Management System requires documented procedures, so that all activities will be more organized, directed, and done consistently.

4. Improve customer trust and satisfaction
By implementing OHS well, it will affect the customer satisfaction, because the implementation of OHS will be able to guarantee safe, orderly and clean process so it can improve quality and reduce defect product. It is not uncommon for buyers to conduct OHS audits with their suppliers to ensure that workers are well protected and production processes are carried out safely.

Is there a relationship between OHS Management Systems and the productivity of garment workers?

Since work accidents affect a company's productivity in the production process, productivity is sustained by the three main pillars of Quantity, Quality, and Safety. Productivity can only be achieved if the three elements of productivity are well balanced. Where a good OHS Management System is lacking quality products is more difficult to achieve. OHS plays a role in ensuring the security of the production process by which higher productivity can be achieved.

What are employer's obligations to implement OSH at the workplace?

The ultimate responsibility for OHS at the workplace lies in hand of management and owners of the company.Therefore, employers have to do several things:
1. OHS Policy. Ensure that all levels of management and all workers know the contents and follow OSH policy, without exception.
2. Resources Provision. Provide adequate facilities and resources so that health and safety policies can be implemented properly - including budgets, personnel, training, opportunities to improve quality, implementation evaluation, and action towards improvement.
3. OHS training policy. OHS training should begin with employee orientation, when a new employee or when workers are being transferred to a new job. The orientation sessions related to OSH should normally include:

  • Emergency procedures
  • First aid location
  • OHS responsibilities
  • Reporting injuries, unsafe conditions and unsafe measures
  • Use of personal protective equipment (PPE)
  • The right to refuse dangerous work
  • Hazards, including outside of their own work area
  • The reasons for each OSH rule."

What are workers' obligations in implementing OSH at the workplace?

Workers are responsible for protecting their own health and safety at work so they need to take part in ensuring the proper functioning of OSH policies.To do this they need to be aware and understand the various health and safety hazards, standards and practices relevant to their work.
Worker responsibilities include:

  • Respect all health and safety regulations
  • Identify potential risks / hazards on their workstations
  • Participate in the OSH Committee
  • Create awareness among colleagues, including new ones, about the OSH culture that is promoted and expected in their workplace.

Is a garment company obliged to have an OHS Committee or OHS Expert?

The OHS Committee is at the heart of successful OSH management systems. The OHS Committee is a cooperation between rep[resentatives of employers and workers in handling OSH issues within the company. The main task of the OHS Committee is to give OHS related advice to the employer/manager (requested or not).

The OSH Committee consists of both workers and management representatives, and is responsible to monitor and implement the OSH policy. The head of the OSH Committee is required to be a high level management representative. The OSH Committee Secretary must be a certified general OSH expert.

The Occupational Safety Expert is designated in companies (or other workplaces) providing OHS services with certain criteria. If the criteria are not applicalbe to a company, it is not required to have a OHS Expert. This means not all companies are required to have an OHS Expert."

Work Accident

What is a work accident?

According to Work Safety Act, a work accident is an unexpected and undesirable event, disrupting activity process and potentially causing harm to both human and property

What causes work accidents?

In general, work accidents are caused by 5 factors, namely:

  • Human factors. Measures to control the work done (whether it is take or not), the lack of knowledge of workers in mastering work field, character and nature of workers
  • Material factors. The risk of explosion, fire and trauma of unexpected exposure to highly toxic substances, such as acids
  • Equipment Factor. Equipment, if not well maintained, is susceptible to failure that can cause an accident.
  • Environmental factors. the environment refers to the state of the workplace. Temperature, humidity, noise, air and lighting quality are examples of environmental factors.
  • Process factors. These include risks arising from production processes and by-products such as heat, noise, dust, steam and smoke.

What are the disadvantages of work accidents?

Losses due to accidents can be categorized as direct and indirect losses, direct losses can be workers injury and damage to production facilities.

Indirect losses are invisible, often referred to as hidden losses, such as interuption of production process, production reduction, claim or compensation cost, social impact, company image and consumer trust."

What are the potential hazards of work accidents that can occur in the garment sector?

Potential work accidents in the garment industry are as follows:

a. Fire hazard
b. Cut off fingers
c. Finger exposed to needle
d. Finger squashed in pressing machine/button machine
e. Electrocution
f. Fall or struck down by garment materials"

What efforts can be made to prevent or reduce work accidents?

Work accident prevention through hazard control at the workplace:

  • Monitoring and control of unsafe conditions at workplace.
  • Monitoring and control of unsafe acts at workplace.

Work accident prevention through coaching and supervision:

  • OHS training 
  • Counseling and consultation on OSH implementation
  • Development of resources or technology related to the improvement of OSH implementation in the workplace

Work accident prevention through the management system:

  • Occupational health and safety policy and procedures
  • Provision of OHS facilities and infrastructure in the workplace
  • Reward and sanctions against OSH implementation in the workplace"